Requirements for a Pleasure Craft Licence (PCL) are listed in the Small Vessel Regulations of the Canada Shipping Act and is summarized in Transport Canada's Office of Boating Safety. Transport Canada operates the National Vessel Registry Centre which offers services for boat licences, registrations, updates and transfers. This summary is provided only for convenience and may be out of date. Get current information directly from Government departments (Government Directory: Transport Canada).
This unique identifier, and associated contact information, is maintained in Transport Canada’s computer-based Pleasure Craft Licensing System. The licensing system is available to government agencies and police to identify a boat in an emergency, assist in search and rescue efforts and enforce pleasure craft regulations. It is not intended as a legal proof of ownership (boats can be sold without a licence transfer being done.) You should update your licence information after changes such as boat colour, owner's phone number, etc. Licence renewal every 10 years is another opportunity to update information.
Licences and renewals are free. You have 90 days to transfer the licence of a used boat.
All pleasure craft powered by an engine 10 horsepower (7.5 kW) or more must be licensed unless the boat has a Vessel Registration. A licence is no longer required for canoes and kayaks used in “guided excursions.” (2011/March Details from Transport Canada.) A licence is sometimes required by foreign countries (i.e. towed dinghies in U.S. locks). If you require a marine mortgage, you must register your vessel in the Canadian Register of Vessels.
Service Canada, on behalf of Transport Canada, issues vessel licences at 320 locations across the country, where you may license new vessels or transfer licensed vessel ownerships at no charge. It should take about 10 minutes to process an application and issue a licence.
License applications are available online (Transport Canada). Here's what you can do online:
New boat licence numbers begin with provincial digraphs (MB, ON, NS) followed by digits. (Licences beginning with 'port' digits has been phased out.) If a boat has a number-letter combination on the boat's bow such as 32E9876 (E is Ontario, 32 is Ottawa), it was licensed before 2007. If the boat has a provincial digraph followed by digits (BC12345 is British Columbia), the licence was issued by Service Canada on behalf of Transport Canada. A license number that begins with "C" (e.g., C00000BC) is a Small Commercial Vessel licensed prior to 2007 - these are now registered in the Small Vessel Registry of Transport Canada. It is highly recommended that pre-2007 licence owners apply for a new number at no charge, which will be entered into the new licence data system.
A licensed boat must be marked on both sides of the bow with contrasting "licence numbers" in block characters at least 7.5 cm (3") high. You may use adhesive decals or paint. There are no regulations about the stern, but it's normal to paint a boat name and city.
Many people confuse Canadian and American terms: our Canadian licensing is similar to the U.S. boat registration. Canadian registration is similar to U.S. documentation, and is designed for commercial vessels and ships.
Canadian spelling changes depending on the usage of the word. The noun "a boat licence" is spelled with a "c". When used as a verb or adjective it is spelled with an "s": "to license a boat", "licensing a boat", or a "licensed boat".
When you buy a used boat with a "licence", you must transfer the licence within 90 days. Take a "bill of sale" signed by the previous owner and the completed transfer form (reverse side of Pleasure Craft Licence form) to Service Canada. If a used boat has no vessel licence or registration papers, contact Transport Canada "Marine Safety" for information. Buyer beware!
Canadian residents who licence or register a boat in another country, can only bring it into Canada for a limited time before they must pay duty and tax on the boat (GST & PST). The Free Trade Agreement provides for low duty to import a domestically manufactured boat and none for some types of marine safety equipment. [More about buying a U.S. boat.]
Canadian regulations require a PCOC (or proof of competency) to operate a boat.
Small Commercial Vessel Licence application forms are available from any Ship Registration office (Transport Canada). Toll-free hotline: 1-877-242-8770
VHF radio licences are sometimes not required based on new regulations. To operate and transmit messages on a VHF radio, you must have a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator's Certificate proving your proficiency.
When you buy a new boat, a boat broker can usually arrange for a licence and payment of sales tax. When you buy a used boat, you transfer the licence by taking it with a "bill of sale" signed by the previous owner to the provincial government office and paying the sales tax. Transferring a trailer license can be done at any provincial vehicle licence office.
When you sell a boat, follow the instructions on the transfer form on the reverse side of your Pleasure Craft Licence and give it to the new owner. The new owner should contact the government to complete the transfer. (Government Directory: Transport Canada)
When you get a licence for a boat, be sure to check its serial numbers and ensure they match the plate on the vessel, on the bill of sale, and all government paperwork.
Section 11 of the Small Vessel Regulations states "The number allotted to a vessel when it is first licensed shall be the permanent licence number of that vessel and shall be retained for the vessel throughout any subsequent transfer of ownership."
You must license your dinghy if you plan to travel on any canals or travel outside Canada. You must put the licence numbers on the dinghy in the proper place and size.
Buy or transfer a trailer license at the provincial Vehicle Licence Office where you intend to drive it. You must have the ownership and a bill of sale from the person or company you bought it from. In some provinces you also pay PST; in others it's HST (GST & PST) at about 15%. (Government Directory: Provinces., Buying a boat and trailer in the USA)
This summary is for convenience only, and may be outdated. Get current information from the government: Government Directory.
Transport Canada is responsible for the Canadian Register of Vessels, which is a legal title system for the ownership of boats. Until a registration process is completed for a new boat, you may apply for a Provisional Certificate of Registry to protect the boat's ownership during the registration process. There are fees for: Registering ($250), transferring ($150), deletion certificate ($50), and registering a marine mortgage ($150). Renewal is free.
Since Registration was really designed for commercial vessels, your country can take control of your registered boat in times of crisis (e.g. war). For that reason, you will legally own only 2/3 of a registered boat; one third is owned by the crown.
Before Transport Canada changed the registration system, registering required a survey by a licensed surveyor. Currently, some boats don't require a survey, but the registration fee is higher, and regular renewal is required.
The Canada Shipping Act, 2001 contains changes with new vessel categories and new fees for registration and transfers. Registration fees are higher and there is a fee to change ownership, ship name, or to de-register altogether. Contact any Ship Registration office. [Government Directory: Transport Canada]
A Certificate of Registry is currently valid for 3 years. Renewal is free. A renewal letter is sent to you 30 days before expiration. If you do not receive it at least 2 weeks before expiry, contact the Registrar at your Port of Registry. If you do not receive it, and do not contact them, they will de-register your boat. It's up to the owner to make sure the boat stays registered. [But it could be useful if you WANT to be de-registered without having to pay the de-registration fee! -Pat]
When we got our own boat registered, we used to joke about how much coal we could carry -- this survey measurement of cargo capacity is designed for large ships! "Register tonnage" is a measurement of volume for carrying cargo.
It's easy to understand why many boat buyers want to establish legal ownership of a valuable asset, but a boat licence doesn't yet accomplish this (in 2005). In the 1970s, a friend almost lost ownership of his brand new "registered" boat when the dealer went bankrupt before delivery.
Information may become outdated. Get current information from government departments.
Licensing is an identification system for boats. A boat licence does not provide clear title or ownership of a boat. If was pointed out to me by Patick Julien (below) that if a licensed boat is stolen, it is difficult to trace it or to prove ownership. It was hoped the new federal licensing system could be used to prove ownership but it is administered by each province and territory and is designed more for and collecting sales tax and search & rescue operations.
Registration is a procedure for documentation of ownership or title in Canada with a "name" and "port of registration". Licensing is a procedure which identifies a vessel with a letter-number combination after having paid sales tax in a province or territory, and does not necessarily imply ownership or title. There's no easy way to check the ownership trail, liens on the boat, or if it's stolen.
If you plan to cruise to other countries, or just want to secure your ownership, registration may be a good option. Of course, it costs more as it involves legal procedures and measurements from Transport Canada.
Registration is supposed to provide title, but problems can happen - I heard from a boater who had a legal battle getting ownership on a newly built boat when the builder went bankrupt before he had taken possession of it, even though it was already "registered".
Patrick Julien (from Caelis International, one of Canada's major Coast Guard and Transport Canada approved marine documentation consultancies), sent me some interesting comments about licences and registration. Here is what he said:
Just to confuse you, Canadians normally "license" a pleasure boat and "register" a ship, while in the U.S. you "register" a pleasure boat and "document" a ship. To confuse things further, in Canada, it's spelled licence with a "C" when used as a noun, such as a "boat licence", but when used as a verb, license is spelled with an "S", such as "to license a boat" or "licensing a boat".